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Sophie
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RE: The Women Apostles, the Women Disciples 2007/05/24 03:38:57 (permalink)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
It is fascinating, isn't it!  So many doors are openning!!!
 
Sophie
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RE: The Women Apostles, the Women Disciples 2007/05/24 03:39:15 (permalink)
Junia: The First Woman Apostle by Eldon Jay Epp and Beverly Roberts

Who was Junia? Nothing is known about her other than her Latin name, that she was an apostle, and that she was in Rome when St. Paul wrote his letter to the Romans. She is listed with others in Romans 16:7, by a man named Andronicus, who with her are called apostles by St. Paul.
 
For many centuries, Junia was thought to have actually been a man by the name of Junias. Eldon Epp shows how this error came about and how she recovered her true gender. Most likely a copyist in the Middle Ages was copying the Letter to the Romans, saw the name Junia and knew enough Latin to know the name was feminine. He most likely thought that there was an error and decided to correct it - he would think, “How could a woman be an apostle?”, his mindset that only men could be apostles or hold any positions in the Church. Another possible reason for the gender reversal was that translators and exegetes could not accept a woman being an apostle, their mindsets being too male oriented. Epp and others refute this idea that “Junia” was a misspelling for “Junias” or some other male name.
 
Epp (and others) reveals that Junias is not a name in Latin - there are no surviving inscriptions or anything else with that name. The name “Junia”, on the other hand, shows up on many inscriptions and other sources - the true name in Romans 16:7, and it is a woman’s name. Junia was not one of the Twelve Apostles named by Jesus; she was probably a lesser apostle, even more so than St. Barnabas the apostle is known as.

Epp has written a short book, but it covers the topic very well. He provides the overwhelming evidence in a convincing if quite academic way. He refers to several bible scholars of various denominations, presenting all the technical scholarly materials to prove that Junia was a woman and that she was declared an apostle by St. Paul. A quarter of the book is devoted to endnotes and a bibliography.

There was a fictional book by Michael Giesler in 2002 entitled Junia: the Fictional Life and Death of an Early Christian. Another book on Junia is by Rena Pederson.

Eldon Epp is the Harkness Professor of Biblical Literature emeritus and Dean of Humanities and Social Science emeritus at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio, and was president of the Society of Biblical Literature in 2003. He is the author of The Theological Tendency of Codex Bezae Cantebrigiensis in Acts (2005) and Perspectives on New Testament Textual Criticism (2005).

Epp calls Junia the first woman apostle; one tradition says that St. Mary Magdalene was the apostle to the Apostles. She was told by the Risen Christ to tell his Apostles that he has risen from the dead. Junia, though, is probably the first woman to have her name listed in Scripture as an apostle.

Epp’s book is recommended for academic and public libraries. People interested in the issue of women in the Church will want this book.
Originally published on Curled Up With A Good Book at www.curledup.com. © Br. Benet Exton, O.S.B., 2005
Sophie
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RE: The Women Apostles, the Women Disciples 2007/05/24 03:43:04 (permalink)
from wikipedia:

Junia or Junias (accusative case: ΙΟΥΝΙΑΝ) is mentioned in the Epistle to the Romans 16:7 as "of note among the apostles" (KJV, RSV). Some Christians take the name to be that of a woman, and see it as proof that Saint Paul encouraged female leaders in the Church. In this interpretation, Junia would be the only recorded female apostle. Andronicus, also mentioned in Romans 16:7, might be her husband.

The female/male issue

The problem of translating the name arises because, when the New Testament was composed, Greek was normally written without accents, although these already had been invented. If written with an acute accent on the penultimate syllable (Ἰουνίαν), the name is "Junia" (a woman's name); if with a circumflex accent on the final syllable (Ἰουνιᾶν), it is "Junias" (a man's). No conclusion can be drawn from the masculine gender of the associated words in the same verse, since they apply also to the male Andronicus. Accordingly, even if Junia(s) is a woman, the rules of Greek grammar put those words in the masculine form. The overwhelming choice of the male form, (Ἰουνιᾶν), when in the 9th century accents were added in manuscripts, may have been influenced by the grammatical gender of these words, but it has also been attributed to a supposed bias on the part of scribes against the idea of a female apostle.[1]

Two Greek manuscripts have "Julia" (clearly a woman's name) instead of "Junia(s)" in this verse. One is papyrus P46 of about the year 200. The other is the thirteenth-century minuscule manuscript catalogued as "6". "Julia" is also the reading in some Latin manuscripts, in one tradition of Coptic manuscripts and in Ethiopic manuscripts. Three Greek uncial manuscripts have the inverse substitution, ("Junia(s)" in place of "Julia") in verse 16:15. This raises the question whether the proximity of the two names, "Junia(s)" and "Julia", on the same page is the reason why, in both cases, a few scribes replaced one name with the other.

No record of the male name "Junias" has been discovered in extra-biblical Greek literature. Three clear occurrences of "Junia" have been found. While earlier searches for "Junias" in Latin also yielded no evidence, it is reported that "Junias" has been found as a Latin nickname or diminutive for the name "Junianas", which was not uncommon both in Greek and Latin.[2]

Among the early Church Fathers, the United Bible Societies The Greek New Testament only cites Jerome as having read the name "Julia" in verse 16:7 and Chrysostom as having understood the name as "Junia". Chrysostom wrote: "O how great is the devotion of this woman that she should be counted worthy of the appellation of apostle!"[3] Although among the Fathers, "an almost universal sense that this was a woman’s name surfaces — at least through the twelfth century, ... this must be couched tentatively because although at least seventeen fathers discuss the issue (see Fitzmyer’s commentary on Romans for the data), the majority of these are Latin fathers,"[4] and "Junia", but not "Junias", was a common enough name in Latin. It has even been claimed that the first known mention of Junia as a male is by Aegidus of Rome (1245-1316), though this ignores the evidence of the Greek manuscripts about how the name was actually interpreted at least from the ninth century onward.

Apostle or not

There is debate whether the mention of Junia(s) as being "prominent among the apostles" (NRSV) means Junia(s) was one of the apostles, or only well known to the apostles. A parallel to the second interpretation is found in the Psalms of Solomon 2:6, where the Jewish captives are spoken of as "a spectacle among the gentiles". The construction is exactly the same, and the word translated as "a spectacle" is exactly the same word that in Romans 16:7 is translated as "of note" or "prominent". But the phrase in the Psalms of Solomon clearly does not mean that the Jewish captives were Gentiles.

Recent Updates and Contradictory Findings

In 2001, Michael Burer and Daniel B. Wallace wrote a journal article entitled Was Junia Really An Apostle? A Re-examination of Romans 16.7, NTS 47. In it Burer and Wallace, accepting that Junia was a woman, asserted that she was well known to the Apostles rather than prominent among the Apostles. The working hypothesis is that if Paul had meant to communicate that Junia was prominent among the Apostles, then he would have used episamoi with a genitive. That is the way inclusion within a group is indicated within Greek. He used episamoi with en and the dative, which according to their hypothesis means they are excluded from the group. There are no exceptions. This is articulated above by the comment that the Jews were not among the Gentiles.

Recently, Linda Belleville, Richard Bauckham, and Eldon Epps have taken on the task of correcting some of the above findings pertaining to Junia. Belleville's article is in NTS and is titled "Iounian...episamoi en tois apostolois: A Re-examination of Romans 16.7 in Light of Primary Source Materials" NTS 51 (2005). Bauckham's book "Gospel Women" devotes several pages to interacting, refuting, and correcting the Burer and Wallace article. Epps in his book "Junia: The First Woman Apostle" covers the whole gamut pertaining to Junia.

Epps gives a tedious but thorough textual critical evaluation of the history of Junia in the Greek text and also the search for Junias (the alleged masculine form of the name, which doesn't seem to be found in New Testament times and rarely there after) in non-Biblical Greek literature. He points out that the earliest copies of the Greek texts for Romans 16.7 are majuscules (the Greek is letters are all capitals). There are no accent marks in them. The importance of this is that the gender of the name depends on the accentuation. Hence, the earliest texts are inconclusive and we are very dependent on Patristic interpretation for the gender of Junia. When the minuscules (using lower case Greek letters) appeared, Junia was accented with a character which indicates the feminine form of the name. Despite the Roman Aegidus, the feminine form of the name was in the Greek text of Erasmus' critical text in 1516 and in all critical Greek texts, with the exception of Alford's 1858 edition, until 1928 when Nestle inexplicably (read, he didn't explain it in the apparatus) went to the masculine form. This remained the case until the 1998, when the edition just as inexplicably went back the other way and the masculine is dropped as even an alternative (not in the apparatus). Hence, the textual weight is for the feminine name Junia, which most scholars accept.

All three have interacted, corrected, and refuted the Burer and Wallace article and hypothesis. Bauckham has shown that Psalms of Solomon 2:6 is not a parallel to Romans 16.7. He has also shown that it is not even relevant to the Romans 16.7. Further, Burer and Wallace cite Lucian in a footnote. The citation is in error (which both Bauckham and Belleville point out). Belleville finds the citation and corrects it. It is episamoi with en and the dative. Further, it is personal and inclusive. Most telling is that it is a perfect parallel with Romans 16.7. (Epps, p. 76). Hence, the weight of their argument actually ends up proving the exact opposite of their hypothesis. They miss this in their conclusions. So it appears that not only was Junia a female, but she was prominent AMONG the Apostles. Such an argument would diminish the veracity of the contentions laid forth by Pope John Paul II in the Apostolic letter Ordinatio Sacerdotalis.
Sophie
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RE: The Women Apostles, the Women Disciples 2007/05/24 03:47:24 (permalink)





So it appears that not only was Junia a female, but she was prominent AMONG the Apostles. Such an argument would diminish the veracity of the contentions laid forth by Pope John Paul II in the Apostolic letter Ordinatio Sacerdotalis.



Did you catch the concluding line in the wikipedia article?!!!
Sophie
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RE: The Women Apostles, the Women Disciples 2007/05/24 04:10:30 (permalink)
Dear friends,

From our own library is Bernadette Brooten's* article Junia...Outstanding Among the Apostles (Romans 16:7) illustrates the significance of the Junia -- the woman apostle.  Brooten points out that John Chrysostom recognised her as an apostle when he wrote:



Greet Andronicus and Junia . . . who are outstanding among the apostles” (Romans 16:7): To be an apostle is something great. But to be outstanding among the apostles—just think what a wonderful song of praise that is! They were outstanding on the basis of their works and virtuous actions. Indeed, how great the wisdom of this woman must have been that she was even deemed worthy of the title of apostle. 

and that the 1975 Report of the Pontifical Biblical Commission turned over centuries of assumption that 'Junias' was a man when it observed:



Also notable is the case of Junias or Junio, placed in the rank of the apostles (Rom. 16, 7), with regard to whom one or another [exegete] raises the question of whether it is a man.
Brootens conclusion which is reassuring in our work for change:
In light of Romans 16:7 then, the assertion that “Jesus did not entrust the apostolic charge to women” must be revised. The implications for women priests should be self-evident. If the first century Junia could be an apostle, it is hard to see how her twentieth century counterpart should not be allowed to become even a priest.
What is the Vatican to say to this?  If John Chrysostom so early on waxed eloquently about Junia -- a woman apostle -- and if Bishops are successors to the apostles -- then how is it that women cannot be Bishops? let alone their helper priests?

The link to the article is here: http://www.womenpriests.org/classic/brooten.asp.  Please enjoy!
 
with love and blessings,
~Sophie~
 
*  At the time of the writing of this article, Bernadette Brooten was at the time a Ph. D. candidate at Harvard University in the field of New Testament and was writing a dissertation on “Women in Early Church Office and Within the Organizational Structures of the Synagogue.” She also studied theology for three years at the University of Tuebingen in West Germany -- a place where both Pope Benedict (Joseph Ratzinger as he then was) and Hans Kung once taught.
Sophie
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RE: The Women Apostles, the Women Disciples 2007/05/24 04:31:33 (permalink)
Dear friends,

I have been reflecting on Junia and her role as an early apostle.  I offer one more article for today about women apostles! This one is by Elisabeth Schussler Fiorenza.*  It is called The Apostleship of Women in Early Christianity. Did women receive apostleship even though they might not have been among the twelve?  Schussler's voice lends weight to the answer 'yes!' In her article, she examines:
  • apostleship based on the resurrection appearance of Jesus Christ
  • apostles -- charismatic missionaries
  • apostles of the Churches
  • the Lukan understanding of apostleship
    • apostles must be witnesses of the resurrection
    • apostles must be witnesses to the life and ministry of Jesus
    • apostles must be sent to missionary work and exhibit the charisma necessary for the work


As Schussler Fiorenza points out:


The New Testament writings however indicate that women fulfilled all these criteria of apostleship. Women accompanied Jesus from Galilee to Jerusalem, they were the primary witnesses of the resurrection, and they were outstanding missionaries in the early Church. On biblical grounds it would be easier to prove that Paul was not entrusted with the “apostolic charge” than to demonstrate that women were excluded from apostleship.

The link to her article is here:
http://www.womenpriests.org/classic/fiorenz2.asp  Please enjoy!

with love and blessings,
~Sophie~

* Elisabeth Schussler Fiorenza, Krister Stendahl Professor of Divinity, Harvard Divinity School.  Theologicum (MDiv), Lic. Theol., University of Würzburg, Dr. Theol., University of Münster.  Her teaching and research focus on questions of biblical and theological epistemology, hermeneutics, rhetoric, and the politics of interpretation, as well as on issues of theological education, radical equality, and democracy. She is a co-founder and editor of the Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion and a co-editor of Concilium. She was elected the first woman president of the Society of Biblical Literature and has served on the editorial boards of major biblical journals and societies. In 2001, she was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Her published work includes In Memory of Her (translated into 12 languages); Bread Not Stone; But She Said; Discipleship of Equals; Revelation: Vision of a Just World; The Power of Naming; Jesus: Miriam's Child; Sharing Her Word; Jesus and the Politics of Interpretation; and Wisdom Ways: Introducing Feminist Biblical Interpretation, Grenzen überschreiten: Der theoretische Anspruch feministischer Theologie
Sophie
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RE: The Women Apostles, the Women Disciples 2007/05/24 05:54:59 (permalink)

 
Sts. Andronicus & Junia,Apostles & Athanasius the New, Bishop of Christianoupolis
Feast Day 17th May in the Orthodox Church
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RE: The Women Apostles, the Women Disciples 2007/05/24 16:27:30 (permalink)
  Mary Magdalene:  Founder of Christianity ,  Jesus's  Most Important Apostle of Early History of Christianity
 
Bart D. Ehrman, New Testament and Early Christianity Theologian,    Peter, Paul and Mary Magdalene, Oxford University Press, 2006      states
 
   " There are several points on which the sources do agree, for example, that Jesus was buried and that on the third day his body was no longer in the tomb, and that Mary Magdalene was the first to find out. This is found independently in Mark, in John and in the Gospel of Peter. Moreover, Matthew, Luke and John, all of which are independent of one another, indicate that Mary Magdalene  (by herself or with other women) went and informed some or all of the male disciples.
      At the very least, I think we have secure historical data to suggest that Mary Magdalene was the first to discover and proclaim the resurrection  of Jesus.  The Christian religion was founded on the belief that Jesus was raised from the dead. And it appears virtually certain that it was Mary Magdalene of all people, an otherwise unknown Galilean Jewish woman of means, who first propounded this belief. It is not at all farfetched to claim that Mary Magdalene was the founder of Christianity.
       It could be argued that she was the most important person in the early history of Christianity, that without her declaration of Jesus's empty tomb, the male disciples may never have been inspired to proclaim the new religion." 
 
       ( Given the known propensity of the misogynist excising of female presence in Christian texts, was Mary Magdalene's biographical information excised from the New Testament?  Was she deliberately made "unknown, sketchy"?  Was she Jesus's wife, and perhaps a relative of Joanna-Junia or Susanna, Salome , was she the Beloved Disciple or was her and Jesus's son the Beloved Disciple at the cross of Jesus?.  The Beloved Disciple, this is your son, this is your mother, the deliberate ambiguity of this disciple, the youthfulness of the disciple, the way this person can be present at the crucifixtion also suggest to me the beloved disciple is the child of Mary Magdalene and Jesus.   These people are special and holy and can not be entirely left out, however they are inserted in an oblique, ambiguous way.  Was the beloved disciple the child of Jesus and Mary Magdalene?  Connie)
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RE: The Women Apostles, the Women Disciples 2007/05/24 16:42:09 (permalink)
    Bart D. Erhman author of   Peter, Paul and Mary Magdalene    does not suggest Mary Magdalene was the wife of Jesus,  however, I have considered this.
    Why does Mary Mother of Jesus insist Jesus provide more wine at the Cana wedding unless Jesus is the bridegroom?
Is this Jesus's wedding and to Mary Magdalene? Why does Mary Magdalene do a wife's duty of attending to Jesus's body in the tomb and in that way makes the discovery that Jesus  is risen? Mary Mother of Jesus and Mary Magdalene and the beloved disciple have permission to stay with Jesus at the crucifixion.  Relatives,  mother and wife and child would certainly merit such permission. Certainly within the realm of possibility.  Connie
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RE: The Women Apostles, the Women Disciples 2007/05/25 01:03:25 (permalink)
   Apostle Junia was a woman.  Name change to man purely patriarchal bias----  Bart H. Ehrman Peter, Paul and Mary Magdalene, Oxford University Press, 2006.
 
   Bart Ehrman very succintly shows us :
"What most people don't realize is that in the early days of the church, there were also women apostles.  A preeminent woman apostle, Junia, and not a man, such a male form of the name Junias  "was not a name at all : it doesn't occur in any ancient Greek text.  It is purely a matter of patriarchal bias. .. (the copyists ) couldn't believe that a woman could be an apostle so they made the woman Junia into a nonexistent man, Junias"     Ehrman demonstrates this brilliantly in his lively, scholarly book   Peter, Paul and Mary Magdalene.
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RE: The Women Apostles, the Women Disciples 2007/05/25 18:12:23 (permalink)
  "Christianity is based on the life and ministry of Jesus, but it is more than that.  Christianity is the belief that Jesus died for the sins of the world and was raised from the dead. Christianity could not begin until someone proclaimed Jesus raised from the dead. The first to do so was Mary Magdalene. Mary  Magdalene really is the one who started Chrsitianity. There could scarcely be a more significant woman for the history of Western civilization--or man, for that matter-who is at the same time less known than Mary Magdalene.
 
      Her role in the story came to be minimalized in some places, especially as men became increasingly in charge of the church and the women leaders-some of them apostles- came to be silenced.
 
       In other places her role and reputation lived on, as evidenced in the scattered references to her in various sources from the early Christian movement, especially among the Gnostics. But for orthodox Christianity, Peter and Paul triumphed."
 
      Bart D Ehrman, Peter ,Paul and Mary Magdalene. 
 
  Excellent points raised by this remarkable theologian!  Let us remember these women!  Let us help our church ordain women!
 Is Mary Magdalene forgotten? Is Apostle Junia forgotten? Joanna? Susanna?  Let us remember them too! Ordain women, too!
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RE: The Women Apostles, the Women Disciples 2007/05/28 02:07:12 (permalink)




Dear friends,

My apologies to Saint Junia!  Her feast day in the Orthodox Church was May 17 and I neglected to acknowledge her on that day.  This from our library:


Junia

Junia is mentioned in Scripture (Rom. 16:7). Paul calls her an ‘apostle and fellow prisoner’. The term ‘apostle’ is reserved in Paul’s letters to persons who received a direct commission from Christ. According to ancient tradition, she was also ordained as a deacon. She is venerated as such in the Orthodox Church. Feast day 17 May.

apostle & deacon


with love and blessings,
~Sophie~
Sophie
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RE: The Women Apostles, the Women Disciples 2007/05/28 02:09:28 (permalink)
Apostles

From OrthodoxWiki -- the Orthodox information website
http://orthodoxwiki.org -- note the mention of Junia among the 70! along with Priscilla ...  Note also the mention of Equal-to-the-Apostles!

The Calling of the Twelve

An Apostle is one who is sent out by our Lord Jesus Christ to spread the gospel that he is the Messiah, that he is risen, and that we are being saved as a result.
The word apostle comes from the Greek αποστολος, literally meaning "one who is sent out." Originally a military term referring to a sortie sent out against the enemy, apostle has in the Christian context come to refer to a missionary spreading the gospel of Jesus Christ.

Contents


1 The Twelve
1.1 Hymns to the twelve
2 The Seventy
2.1 Hymns to the seventy
3 Other Apostles
4 Source
5 Exteral link


The Twelve

Synaxis of the Twelve Apostles

Our Lord originally appointed twelve apostles as his initial Church community, commissioned with the task of sharing the faith. As told in the Gospels, Judas Iscariot was originally one of them, but with his apostasy and death, he was replaced with Matthias. Their collective feast day is June 30. The Apostles' names are listed at Matthew 10:2, Mark 3:14, Luke 6:12, Acts 1:13, 26.

After Judas' replacement, the Twelve consisted of the following:


Hymns to the twelve

Troparion (Tone 3)

O holy Apostles of Christ
Pray to our merciful God,
That he may grant us remission of our sins.

Kontakion (Tone 2)

Today Christ the Rock gladly glorifies the rock of faith,
The chosen disciple, together with Paul and the entire company of the Twelve.
As we celebrate their memory,
We glorify him who has glorified them!

The Seventy

The Seventy Apostles are those whom the Lord chose (described in Luke 10:1-16) in addition to the Twelve and sent forth to assist in the work of preaching. Over time, the Twelve added others to their number, who were sent out with the original Seventy to preach the gospel. Although this number eventually exceeded seventy, they were all nevertheless referred to as "of the Seventy" out of reverence to the number which the Lord originally chose. Their collective feast day is January 4

Communion of the Apostles

It is difficult to determine a comprehensive and accurate list of the Seventy, but here are some of their names:
Achaicus, Agabus, Alphaeus, Amplias, Ananias (who baptized Paul), Andronicus, Apelles, Apollo, Apphia, Aquila, Archippus, Aristarchus, Aristobulus, Artemas, Asyncritus, Barnabas (leader of the Seventy and companion of Paul), Caesar, Carpus, Cephas, Clement, Cleopas (who accompanied the Lord to Emmaus), Crescens, Crispus, Epaphroditus, Epenetus, Erastus, Evodus, Fortunatus, Gaius, Hermas, Hermes (bishop of Dalmatia), Herodian, James (the Brother of God, also called "the Less"), Jason, Junia, Justus (brother of the Lord), Linus, Lucius, Luke the Evangelist (companion of Paul and author of the Gospel that bears his name), Mark the Evangelist (companion of Paul and author of the Gospel that bears his name), Narcissus, Nathaniel, Nicanor (one of the original seven deacons), Olympas, Onesimus, Onesiphorus, Parmenas (one of the original seven deacons), Patrobas, Philemon, Philip (one of the original seven deacons), Philologos, Phlegon, Priscilla, Prochorus (one of the original seven deacons), Pudens, Quadratus, Quartus, Rodion, Rufus, Silas (companion of Paul), Silvan, Sosipater, Sosthenes, Stachys, Stephen the Protomartyr (one of the original seven deacons), Terpnus, Tertius, Thaddeus (sometimes confused with Jude of the Twelve), Timon (one of the original seven deacons), Timothy (companion of Paul), Titus, Trophimus, Urban, Zacchaeus, and Zenas.

Hymns to the seventy

Troparion (Tone 3)

Holy apostles of the Seventy,
entreat the merciful God
to grant our souls forgiveness of transgressions.
Kontakion (Tone 2)

O faithful, let us praise with hymns
the choir of the seventy disciples of Christ.
They have taught us all to worship the undivided Trinity,
for they are divine lamps of the Faith.

Other Apostles

The Apostle Paul (June 29) is also referred to as an apostle, though he is not one of the Twelve or of the Seventy. Other missionary saints are also referred to as apostles, though usually not as an initial title, but rather as an epithet, e.g., "Apostle to the North" (though some regard this usage as not traditionally Orthodox). Further, other saints have the epithet "Equal-to-the-Apostles" (in Greek, Ισαποστολος), usually because of their significant work in building up the Church. St. Paul shares the collective feast day with the Twelve Great Apostles. He was beheaded in Rome during the reign of Emporer Nero.
  • Apostle to the Abyssinians: Saint Frumentius
  • Apostle of the Ardennes: Saint Hubert, 656 - 727
  • Apostle to the Armenians: Saint Gregory the Illuminator, 256 - 331
  • Apostle to Karantania: Bishop Virgilius of Salzburg, 745 - 784
  • Apostle to the English: Saint Augustine, died 604
  • Apostle to the Franks: Saint Denis, 3rd century
  • Apostle to the Franks: Saint Remigius, ca. 437 - 533
  • Apostle to the Frisians: Saint Willibrord, 657 - 738
  • Apostle to the Gauls: Saint Irenaeus, 130 - 200
  • Apostle to the Gauls: Saint Martin of Tours, 338 - 401
  • Apostle to the Gentiles: Saint Paul
  • Apostle to the Germans: Saint Boniface, 680 - 755
  • Apostle to the Goths: Bishop Ulfilas
  • Apostle to Hungary: Saint Anastasius, 954 - 1044
  • Apostle to India: Saint Thomas
  • Apostle to Ireland: Saint Patrick, 373 - 463
  • Apostle to Noricum: Saint Severinus
  • Apostle to the North: Saint Ansgar, 801 - 864
  • Apostle to the Parthians: Saint Thomas
  • Apostle to the Picts: Saint Ninian, 5th century
  • Apostle to the Scots: Saint Columba, 521 - 597
  • Apostle to the Slavs: Saint Cyril, ca. 820 - 869
  • Apostle to the Slavs: Saint Methodius
  • Apostle to Spain: Saint James the Great, d. 44

Source

Exteral link

Retrieved from "http://orthodoxwiki.org/Apostles"
Sophie
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RE: The Women Apostles, the Women Disciples 2007/05/28 03:12:37 (permalink)
Dear friends,

As I was searching for information about Junia,  I happened upon the September 2006  The Knightly News Council 9543 Madison -- the newsletter of the Madison, Wisconsin (USA) Knights of Columbus.

I was most impressed with the  information the newsletter provided about women apostles.  In the context of providing information about The DaVinci Code, the Counsel's spiritual advisor Father Bob took the time to carefully explain about women apostles.  Quoting from Father Robert Stein, pastor of St. Mary Catholic Church, in New Roads, Louisiana,** here is what he said:

So then, if Mary isn’t the wife of Jesus, nor the real leader of the church instead of Peter, nor the contemptible prostitute, who is she? She is, as St. Augustine said in the fourth century, “the Apostle to the Apostles.” In the 1970 revision of the Roman missal, the Church changed the Gospel reading on her feast day from the penitent woman of Luke 7 to the witness to the resurrection in John 20. Of all the apostles, she is the first to receive a resurrection appearance:Jesus says to her 'Mary!' And she is the first apostle sent to proclaim the resurrection: “Jesus tells her “Go to my brothers and tell them, “I am going to my Father and your Father....” And she is the first to profess faith in the resurrection: “I have seen the Lord!” These three firsts make her a very special eyewitness. Among women, and next to the Blessed Mother, she is the preeminent apostle.
 
It may seem strange to refer to Mary as an apostle, but in the first few centuries of Christianity the term wasn’t reserved solely for the Twelve, nor solely for men. In 1 Corinthians 15, Paul affirms that the risen Christ “appeared to Cephas, then to the Twelve,” and later “to all the apostles.” Moreover, in Romans 16, Paul refers to a woman named Junia, who along with a man named Andronicus, is “prominent among the apostles.” Finally, in the third century, Bishop Hippolytus wrote: “Lest the female apostles doubt the angels, Christ himself came to them so that the women would be apostles of Christ.”
 
It may be sensational to think of Mary Magdalene as the wife of Jesus and mother of his children, but that fictional account makes her prosaic and too conventional. On the other hand, the Gospel portrayal makes her equal to men, preeminent in a special way, and unique. Definitely, I prefer the Gospel account. God bless you always and in all ways. Fr. Bob

Though I don't know what Father Bob or Father Robert's opinions are about women priests, thanks to both of you for holding women apostles up in truth to the people! In this short message, they effectively point out:
  • Mary Magdalene was an apostle
  • St. Augustine recognised her as apostle to the apostles
  • reference to Pope Gregory's error in conflating her story along with those other women in the scripture
  • the 1970 lectionary correction about Mary Magdalene.  Instead of the reading about the penitent woman being used on Mary's feast day in July, the 1970 correction replaced that reading with the one about the resurrection appearance.
  • Mary Magdalene -- the apostle of three firsts:
    • the first eyewitness to the resurrection
    • the first apostle sent to proclaim the news of the resurrection
    • the first apostle to express faith in the resurrection

  • in the first centuries of Christianity, the term apostle was not reserved for the Twelve nor was it limited to men
  • Junia is an apostle
  • in early Christianity, Bishop Hippolytus specifically acknowledged that women were apostles and that it was Christ's intention that women be apostles

Thanks for the front line work, Fathers Bob and Robert! You are doing excellent jobs with the message about women apostles!  Thank you for doing your part!
 
with love and blessings,
~Sophie~
 
*   http://www.kofcmadison.org/newsletter/newsletter092006.pdf
** The observations about women apostles, written by Fr. Robert Stein, pastor of St. Mary Catholic Church in New Roads, Louisiana, initially appeared as one of his weekly messages to the parishioners in the Sunday Church Bulletin.
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RE: The Women Apostles, the Women Disciples 2007/05/29 20:33:32 (permalink)
  Bart D. Ehrman, eminent New Testament theologian, shows us in his book     Misquoting Jesus The Story Behind Who Changed the Bible and Why   that the prohibitions against women to speak in church and the text that women be subservient  to men  are    later  scribal  alterations   and  insertions  made by a scribe who was concerned to empathize that women should have no public role in the church, that they should be silent and subservient to their husbands."  
 
     Ehrman shows how based on the evidence- literary context, shuffling of verses in several manuscripts, context of  entire 1 Corinthians, that 1 Corinthians  14: 34-35 is a scribal insert not attributable  to Paul.   See Ehrman's text in his book Misquoting Jesus   to see his insightful analysis. (p. 178-184).
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RE: The Women Apostles, the Women Disciples 2007/05/29 22:45:42 (permalink)
ORIGINAL: Guest

[In short, the priest's assessment that the choice of Matthias confirms that only men can be priests falls under the same sort of scrutiny as does Pope John Paul II's Ordinatio Sacerdotalis itself! I hope this helps. If you have any questions, please let me know!
with love and blessings,
~Sophie~ 


Dear Sophie,

If I understand correctly, the Church’s argument comes down to the following:

God became incarnate as a man and chose twelve male Apostles to establish a theological difference between men and women. (Did Jesus ever say this? Isn’t this just an assumption?) This theological difference manifests itself as an all male priesthood. The reason for the all male priesthood is a mystery that God has not chosen to reveal to us.

Essentially what they are saying is that Jesus, in establishing the priesthood, chose to discriminate against women and we should not question this.

So this is why the Vatican cannot act on its own authority, because they recognize that it is unjust to discriminate against women. Therefore they are saying Christ did justly what it would have been unjust for them to do on their own. Otherwise they could act on their own authority.

But this doesn’t make sense to me. Shouldn’t we understand why something is right or wrong? We could just as easily say that slavery is just or polygamy is just, since there are biblical precedents for both which suggest acceptance by God.

Getting back to Matthias, was he Jewish? Also the priest made a point that in the Greek language the choice of a man (male) was emphasized as a decisive factor in replacing Judas (the traitor). But this emphasis on maleness is lost in the English translation. Reference to the Greek text is why the Church concludes that maleness is a defining criterion for the priesthood. Is this correct?


Dear friend,

Dr. Wijngaards and I had an opportunity to touch base regarding your follow up inquiries about Matthias, scripture and interpretation.  Dr. Wijngaards is a scripture scholar who studied at the Gregorian University in Rome. The breadth and depth of his knowledge consistently amaze me!  For the sake of organisation in my reply, I will copy your question and provide Dr. Wijngaards' specific response to each one.

1.  Your question: 'Getting back to Matthias, was he Jewish?'
  • Response: Yes!

2.  Your question: 'Also the priest made a point that in the Greek language the choice of a man (male) was emphasized as a decisive factor in replacing Judas (the traitor). But this emphasis on maleness is lost in the English translation.'
  • Response: The Greek says literally: "therefore from the men (andron) who walked with us during all the time etc.  . . .  one must become a witness of his resurrection etc."

    The word 'aner - genitive andros, etc.' means 'man' in classical Greek. In biblical Greek it can mean just 'someone' (including a woman).

    Now it is quite possible that Peter (the speaker) preferred to choose  a man to replace Judas for the same reason Jesus had chosen twelve men, namely because the twelve represented the 12 sons of Jacob and so the 12 tribes of Israel = the whole new people of God; and because people expected men to be leaders. But the use of the word 'aner' by itself does not prove that.

    In biblical Greek (Greek as spoken by Jews) 'aner' often occurs in the New Testament without an explicit meaning of maleness. It is much like in antiquated church language that addressed the congregation as 'brethren' (including the women) or saying Jesus came to save mankind (including women) etc.  Schmoller (whose analysis Dr. Wijngaards uses) mentions 46 (!) examples in which 'aner' in the New Testament does have a more generic meaning, e.g. in Romans 4,6: a man (person!) is happy if God considers him (and her!) righteous, etc.  Also, in  Matthew 7,24: who listens to my word is like a sensible man (person!) who builds a house on rock etc.

    That is why modern translations render Acts 1,21 as: we must choose 'someone' etc.

    In Dr. Wijngaards' words: 'To hang the exclusion of women from the ministries on this Semitic way of speaking Greek is very shallow indeed!'

To learn more about this, he recommends the following document as something that would be useful to read:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Koine_Greek 

I hope this helps.  Thank you for your questions.  They are helping all of us learn more!

with love and blessings,
~Sophie~
post edited by Sophie - 2007/06/01 04:24:31
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RE: The Women Apostles, the Women Disciples 2007/05/30 05:55:57 (permalink)
from futurechurch.org
 
Women and the Word: Synod 2008: Put Women Back in the Biblical Picture!

FutureChurch is launching a two-year campaign to raise awareness about the invisibility of women's biblical leadership and experience in Church preaching and scripture proclamation.

Pope Benedict has announced that the theme of the October 2008 World Synod of Bishops will be "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church."  Synod council members met recently and urged special attention to "the Word of God in liturgy, in preaching, in catechesis, in theology, spirituality, public and private meditation, enculturation and ecumenism".  On April 27, 2007 the lineamenta or outline for the Synod was distributed to bishops around the world. Dioceses have until November 4, 2007 to respond.

Pope Benedict has spoken twice about the need "to offer more space, more positions of responsibility to women," and that "women themselves.... will know how to make their own space...And we will have to try and listen..." (March, August 2006) In February he provided the biblical underpinnings for women preachers and leaders in his daily audience address to 20,000 people.

FutureChurch will provide concrete suggestions to synod leaders for ways to listen to women's voices, particularly in preaching and proclaiming the Word.
An international electronic and paper postcard campaign invites concerned Catholics to send these four concrete suggestions to local, national and international Church leaders to help shape the synod agenda:
  • Invite women biblical experts. No women theologians were included in the 2005 Synod.
  • Devote more pastoral attention to Jesus' and St. Paul's inclusion of women leaders.
  • Expand opportunities for women preachers so both women and men can hear the Word through the lens of Christian women.
  • Restore biblical women leaders to lectionary readings in which their witness was diminished or deleted. (See Women in the Bible and the Lectionary by Sr. Ruth Fox from May/June issue of LITURGY 90, © 1996.)

In 2005, FutureChurch worked to get the priest shortage on the agenda of the Synod on the Eucharist. We were successful because thousands of people were willing to send postcard input as their local dioceses prepared their response to the "lineamenta" or outline of what should be on the agenda.

Please help us shape those responses so we as a Church can be refreshed by women's reflection on the Word and retrieve the critical history of biblical women leaders.   Send electronic postcards or paper postcards to your local bishop(s) (and automatically cc: the Pope and Pontifical Biblical Commission) asking them to implement the above suggestions.  To order paper postcards, click here.

MAKE YOUR VOICE HEARD
PUT WOMEN BACK IN THE BIBLICAL PICTURE!

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

* FutureChurch was founded in Cleveland, Ohio in 1990. The Church of the Resurrection in Solon, Ohio passed a resolution calling on U.S. Bishops to reconsider opening ordination to women and the married, both men, and women, so that the Eucharist would continue to be the center of the spiritual lives of all Catholics. Subsequently, 28 parishes in Northeast Ohio supported this initiative and the local FutureChurch network was born. In response to a national call to recognize that he Eucharist is more important to Catholic identity than celibacy or the gender of the presider, FutureChurch incorporated in 1993 and grew into a national network of parish based activists.

FutureChurch is concerned about the related issues of women in ministry, optional celibacy, inclusive language, and Church decision-making that involves all the faithful, as called for by Vatican II.
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RE: The Women Apostles, the Women Disciples 2007/06/01 00:12:28 (permalink)
ORIGINAL: Sophie


Dear friend,

Dr. Wijngaards and I had an opportunity to touch base about your further inquiries about scripture and interpretation.  Dr. Wijngaards is a scripture scholar who studied at the Gregorian University in Rome. His breadth of knowledge quite amazes me!  For the sake of organisation in reply, I will copy your question and provide the specific response from Dr. Wijngaards.

1.  Your question: 'Getting back to Matthias, was he Jewish?'
  • Response: Yes!

2.  Your question: 'Also the priest made a point that in the Greek language the choice of a man (male) was emphasized as a decisive factor in replacing Judas (the traitor). But this emphasis on maleness is lost in the English translation.'
  • Response: The Greek says literally: "therefore from the men (andron) who walked with us during all the time etc.  . . .  one must become a witness of his resurrection etc."

    The word 'aner - genitive andros,etc.' means 'man' in classical Greek. In biblical Greek it can mean just 'someone' (including a woman).

    Now it is quite possible that Peter (the speaker) preferred to choose  a man to replace Judas, for the same reason Jesus had chosen twelve men, namely because the twelve represented the 12 sons of Jacob and so the 12 tribes of Israel = the whole new people of God; and because people expected men to be leaders. But the use of the word 'aner' does by itself does not prove that.

    In biblical Greek (Greek as spoken by Jews) 'aner' often occurs in the New Testament without an explicit meaning of maleness. It is much like in antiquated church language that addressed the congregation as 'brethren' (including the women) or saying Jesus came to save mankind (including women) etc. Schmoller (whose analysis Dr. Wijngaards uses) mentions 46 (!) examples in which 'aner' in the New Testament does have a more generic meaning, e.g. in Romans 4,6: a man (person!) is happy if God considers him (and her!) righteous, etc.  Also, in  Matthew 7,24: who listens to my word is like a sensible man (person!) who builds a house on rock etc.

    That is why modern translations render Acts 1,21 as: we must choose 'someone' etc.

    In Dr. Wijngaards' words: 'To hang the exclusion of women from the ministries on this Semitic way of speaking Greek is very shallow indeed!'


To learn more about this, he recommends the following document as something that would be useful to read:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Koine_Greek 

I hope this helps.  Thank you for your questions.  They are helping all of us learn more!

with love and blessings,
~Sophie~

 
 
 
Dear Sophie,
 
Please extend my sincere thanks to Dr. Wijngaards for providing information on this and other questions.
 
I was sorry to learn that he felt it necessary to resign from the priesthood, but in my opinion he is a true priest in the Roman Catholic Church. I greatly admire his integrity.
 
May God bless him and you also for your wonderful work.
 
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RE: The Women Apostles, the Women Disciples 2007/06/01 01:00:14 (permalink)
  "Walked with us  during all  the time... witness to his resurrection"
 
    Awesome!!!   Women totally fit the definition:  Women followed Jesus from Gaillea and ministered to him by their own resources   and  women witnessed Jesus's Resurrection...   without Mary Magdalene  the men would not have known Jesus resurrected.
 
     A woman,  Mary Magdalene, witnessed the resurrection, the crucifixion, walked with Jesus during all his minstry and provided for the disciples out of her resources.
 
      Women too are disciples and apostles!   Not just men and More than 12!  12 is a Jewish tribal number however Jesus went beyond the tribes of Israel to the Gentile world. 
 
      Time to pay attention to the New Testament.
 
 
     Of 28 people Paul praises 10 are women:
 
     Prisca, Junia, Syntyche, Tryponemea, Tryphorea, Nino, Eudonia, Eunice, Lois, Lydia, then there are Salome, Mary Magdalene, Thecla, Joanna, Susanna, Mother Mary.  Are there indeed More Women apostles than men?    Connie
 
     THANK YOU DR. WIJNGAARDS  for your wonderful  help!
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RE: The Women Apostles, the Women Disciples 2007/06/01 01:57:38 (permalink)
Women Apostles Phoebe Mary, Mother of Jesus
Prisca
Junia
Mary Magdalene
Tryphaena
Tryphosa
Persis
Julia
Olympus
Joanna
Susanna
Lydia
Eudoia
Lois
Syntyche
Thecla
Eunice
Salome
19 Women Apostles Samaritan Woman
post edited by Sophie - 2007/06/01 02:33:03
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