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The Women Apostles, The Women Disciples

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RE: The Women Apostles, the Women Disciples 2008/03/25 02:14:11 (permalink)
A friend to Jesus and the early women apostles and disciples --

Saint Joseph of Arimathea (RM)
Feastday March 17


Jesus Christ, Mary Magdalene, the Blessed Virgin Mary, John the Apostle, Joseph of Arimethea, and Nicodemus

1st century. We read about Joseph of Arimathea, the "noble counsellor," in all four Gospels (Matthew 27:57-61; Mark 15:43-46; Luke 23:50-56; and John 19:38-42). As with many of the Biblical figures, numerous legends accrued around his name in later years.

Saint Joseph was a wealthy member of the temple council and a secret follower of Jesus because he was afraid of persecution from Jewish officials. He attended the Crucifixion, and legend has it that he caught Jesus's blood as he hung upon the cross. (What is said to be the Sacro Catino in which Joseph caught the blood of Christ at the Crucifixion is at San Lorenzo, Genoa, Italy.) Joseph persuaded Pontius Pilate to let him have Jesus's body, wrapped it in linen and herbs, and laid it in a tomb carved in a rock in the side of a hill, a tomb that he had prepared for himself.

Later tradition has embellished this account to add that Joseph was a distant relative of Jesus, who derived his wealth from tin mines in Cornwall, which he visited from time to time. One version tells the story of the teenaged Jesus accompanying Joseph on one such visit. This is the background of the poem "Jerusalem," by William Blake (1757-1827):


And did those feet in ancient time
Walk upon England's mountains green?
And was the holy Lamb of God
On England's pleasant pastures seen?
And did the countenance divine
Shine forth upon our clouded hills?
And was Jerusalem builded here
Among those dark satanic mills?
Bring me my bow of burning gold!
Bring me my arrows of desire!
Bring me my spear!
O clouds, unfold!
Bring me my chariot of fire!
I will not cease from mental fight,
Nor shall my sword sleep in my hand,
Till we have built Jerusalem
In England's green and pleasant land.


This version continues to say that, after the Crucifixion, Saint Joseph returned to Cornwall, bringing with him the chalice of the Last Supper, known as the Holy Grail. The Holy Grail was hidden and played an important part in the folk history of England in the great national epic about King Arthur and his knights who unsuccessful seek to find it.

Upon reaching Glastonbury, he planted his staff, which took root and blossomed into a thorn tree. This is the Holy Thorn, which flowers at Christmas. King Charles I baited his wife's Roman Catholic chaplain by observing that, although Pope Gregory had proclaimed a reform of the calendar, the Glastonbury Thorn ignored the Pope's decree and continued to blossom on Christmas Day according to the Old Calendar. One of Cromwell's soldiers cut down the Thorn because it was a relic of superstition. We are told that he was blinded by one of the thorns as it fell. A tree allegedly grown from a cutting of the original Thorn survives today in Glastonbury (and trees propagated from it stand on the grounds of the Cathedral in Washington, DC, and presumably elsewhere) and leaves from it are sold in all the tourist shops in Glastonbury.

It was not until about the middle of the 13th century that the legend appears saying Joseph accompanied Saint Philip to Gaul to preach and was sent by him to England as the leader of 12 missionaries. It is said that the company, inspired by Gabriel the archangel, built a church made of wattles in honor of the Virgin Mary on an island called Yniswitrin, given to them by the king of England. The church eventually evolved into Glastonbury Abbey in Somerset. Supposedly Joseph died there, was buried on the island, and miraculous cures worked at his grave. This burial site is unlikely though.

Is there any merit to the legends of Saint Joseph? Perhaps. Tin, an essential ingredient of bronze, was highly valued in ancient times, and Phoenician ships imported tin from Cornwall. It is not unreasonable to believe that some first-century, Jewish Christians might have been investors in the Cornwall tin trade. Christianity gained a foothold in Britain very early, perhaps, in part, because of the commerce in tin. If so, then the early British Christians would have a tradition that they had been evangelized by a wealthy Jewish Christian. Having forgotten his name, they might have consulted the Scriptures and found that Joseph and Saint Barnabas fit the description. Because much of the life of Barnabas was already described by the Acts of the Apostles making him an unlikely candidate, only Joseph was left. Thus, Christians seeking an immediate connection with their Lord, grasped on to Joseph as their evangelizer (Attwater, Benedictines, Bentley, Delaney, Encyclopedia, Robinson, White).

In art, Saint Joseph is portrayed as a very old man, carrying a pot of ointment or a flowering staff or a pair of altar cruets (containing the blood and sweat of Jesus) (White). He may be shown taking the crown of thorns from the dead Christ. At other times he is shown with the shroud and crown of thorns, a thorn tree by him, or a box of spices (Roeder). Click here to see William Blake's Joseph of Arimathea among the Rocks of Albion.

He is venerated at Glastonbury and patron of grave-diggers and undertakers (Roeder, White).

http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/0317.shtml
post edited by Sophie - 2008/03/25 02:18:56
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RE: The Women Apostles, the Women Disciples 2008/03/25 02:39:42 (permalink)
Joseph of Arimathea was, according to the Gospels, the man who donated his own prepared tomb for the burial of Jesus after Jesus was crucified. A native of Arimathea, he was apparently a man of wealth, and probably a member of the Sanhedrin (which is the way bouleutēs, literally "counsellor", is often interpreted in Matthew 27:57 and Luke 23:50).

Joseph was an "honourable counsellor, who waited (or "was searching") for the kingdom of God" (Mark 15:43), according to John 19:38 he was secretly a disciple of Jesus. As soon as he heard the news of Jesus' death, he "went in boldly unto Pilate, and craved the body of Jesus." The Scholars Version notes this as "unexpected… Is Joseph in effect bringing Jesus into his family?"
 
Pilate, reassured by a centurion that the death had really taken place, allowed Joseph's request. Joseph immediately purchased fine linen (Mark 15:46) and proceeded to Golgotha to take the body down from the cross. There, assisted by Nicodemus, he took the body and wrapped it in the fine linen, sprinkling it with the myrrh and aloes that Nicodemus had brought (John 19:39). The body was then conveyed to a new tomb that had been hewn for Joseph himself out of a rock in his garden nearby. There they laid it, in the presence of Mary Magdalene, Mary, the mother of Jesus, and other women, and rolled a great stone to the entrance, and departed (Luke 23:53, 55). This was done speedily, "for the Sabbath was drawing on".

Joseph of Arimathea is venerated as a saint by the Catholic, Lutheran Eastern Orthodox and some Anglican churches. His feast-day is March 17 in the West, July 31 in the East. The Orthodox also commemorate him on the Sunday of the Myrrhbearers—the second Sunday after Pascha (Easter)—as well as on July 31. He appears in some early New Testament apocrypha, and a series of legends grew around him during the Middle Ages, which tied him to Britain and the Holy Grail.


Joseph of Arimathea by Pietro Perugino.
A detail from a larger work.
 
Joseph's role in the Gospels
 
Christians interpret Joseph's role as fulfilling Isaiah's prediction that the grave of the Messiah would be with a rich man (Isaiah 53:9). The skeptical tradition, which reads the various fulfillments of prophecies in the life of Jesus as inventions designed for that purpose, reads Joseph of Arimathea as a story created to fulfill this prophecy in Isaiah. With this in mind, it is worth quoting the passage from Isaiah, chapter 53, the "Man of Sorrows" passage, because so much of the meaningfulness of Joseph of Arimathea hinges upon these words:

He was assigned a grave with the wicked, and with the rich in his death, though he had done no violence, nor was any deceit in his mouth.

The Greek Septuagint text is not quite the same:

And I will give the wicked for his burial, and the rich for his death; for he practised no iniquity, nor craft with his mouth.

In the Qumran community's Great Isaiah Scroll, dated at c. 100 BC the words are not identical to the Masoretic text:

And they gave wicked ones his grave and [a scribbled word, probably accusative sign "eth"] rich ones in his death although he worked no violence neither deceit in his mouth.

Is the "Man of Sorrows" assigned a shameful grave with the rich and wicked? Or are the wicked and rich given his grave? The question cannot be resolved simply from the three parallel surviving manuscript traditions.

Historical development
 
Since the 2nd century a mass of legendary details has accumulated around the figure of Joseph of Arimathea in addition to the New Testament references. Joseph is also referenced in apocryphal and non-canonical accounts such as the Acts of Pilate, given the medieval title Gospel of Nicodemus and The Narrative of Joseph, and early church historians such as Irenaeus (125 – 189), Hippolytus (170 – 236), Tertullian (155 – 222), and Eusebius (260 – 340) added details not in the canonical accounts. Hilary of Poitiers (300 – 367) enriched the legend, and Saint John Chrysostom (347 – 407), the Patriarch of Constantinople, wrote in Homilies of St. John Chrysostum on the Gospel of John that Joseph was likely one of the Seventy Apostles appointed in Luke 10.

During the late twelfth century, Joseph became connected with the Arthurian cycle as the first keeper of the Holy Grail. This idea first appears in Robert de Boron's Joseph d'Arimathie, in which Joseph receives the Grail from an apparition of Jesus and sends it with his followers to Britain. This is elaborated upon in Boron's sequels and in later Arthurian works. Later retellings of the story contend that Joseph of Arimathea himself travelled to Britain and became the first (or at least an early) bishop of Christianity.

Christian interpretations
 
Biblical text amplifies both the characteristics of Joseph, and the involvement he had with the burial of Christ, in reference to Isaiah 53:9.

According to Dwight Moody in Bible Characters, seldom is anything mentioned by all four Evangelists. If something is mentioned by Matthew and Mark, it is often omitted by Luke and John. However in the case of Joseph of Arimathea, he and his actions are mentioned by all four writers: Matthew 27:57–60, Mark 15:43-46, Luke 23:50-55 and John 19:38-42.

Gospel of Nicodemus
 
The Gospel of Nicodemus, a section of the Acts of Pilate, provides additional, though even more mythologized, details. After Joseph asked for the body of Christ from Pilate, and prepared the body with Nicodemus' help, Christ's body was delivered to a new tomb that Joseph had built for himself. In the Gospel of Nicodemus, the Jewish elders express anger at Joseph for burying the body of Christ in the following exchange:

And likewise Joseph also stepped out and said to them: Why are you angry against me because I begged the body of Jesus? Behold, I have put him in my new tomb, wrapping in clean linen; and I have rolled a stone to the door of the tomb. And you have acted not well against the just man, because you have not repented of crucifying him, but also have pierced him with a spear.
Gospel of Nicodemus. Translated by Alexander Walker.


The Jewish elders then captured Joseph, and imprisoned him, and placed a seal on the door to his cell after first posting a guard. Joseph warned the elders:

The Son of God whom you hanged upon the cross, is able to deliver me out of your hands. All your wickedness will return upon you.

Once the elders returned to the cell, the seal was still in place, but Joseph was gone. The elders later discover that Joseph had returned to Arimathea. Having a change in heart, the elders desired to have a more civil conversation with Joseph about his actions and sent a letter of apology to him by means of seven of his friends. Joseph travelled back from Arimathea to Jerusalem to meet with the elders, where they questioned by them about his escape. He told them this story;

On the day of the Preparation, about the tenth hour, you shut me in, and I remained there the whole Sabbath in full. And when midnight came, as I was standing and praying, the house where you shut me in was hung up by the four corners, and there was a flashing of light in mine eyes. And I fell to the ground trembling. Then some one lifted me up from the place where I had fallen, and poured over me an abundance of water from the head even to the feet, and put round my nostrils the odour of a wonderful ointment, and rubbed my face with the water itself, as if washing me, and kissed me, and said to me, Joseph, fear not; but open thine eyes, and see who it is that speaks to thee. And looking, I saw Jesus; and being terrified, I thought it was a phantom. And with prayer and the commandments I spoke to him, and he spoke with me. And I said to him: Art thou Rabbi Elias? And he said to me: I am not Elias. And I said: Who art thou, my Lord? And he said to me: I am Jesus, whose body thou didst beg from Pilate, and wrap in clean linen; and thou didst lay a napkin on my face, and didst lay me in thy new tomb, and roll a stone to the door of the tomb. Then I said to him that was speaking to me: Show me, Lord, where I laid thee. And he led me, and showed me the place where I laid him, and the linen which I had put on him, and the napkin which I had wrapped upon his face; and I knew that it was Jesus. And he took hold of me with his hand, and put me in the midst of my house though the gates were shut, and put me in my bed, and said to me: Peace to thee! And he kissed me, and said to me: For forty days go not out of thy house; for, lo, I go to my brethren into Galilee.
Gospel of Nicodemus. Translated by Alexander Walker

According to the Gospel of Nicodemus, Joseph testified to the Jewish elders, and specifically to chief priests Caiaphas and Annas that Jesus had risen from the dead and ascended to heaven and he indicated that others were raised from the dead at the resurrection of Christ (repeating Matt 27:52-53). He specifically identified the two sons of the high-priest Simeon (again in Luke 2:25-35). The elders Annas, Caiaphas, Nicodemus, and Joseph himself, along with Gamaliel under whom Paul of Tarsus studied, travelled to Arimathea to interview Simeon's sons Charinus and Lenthius.

Other medieval texts
 
Medieval interest in Joseph centered around two themes;
  • Joseph as the founder of British Christianity (even before it had taken hold in Rome).
  • Joseph as the original guardian of the Holy Grail.

....

Legends

The mytheme of the staff that Joseph of Arimathea set in the ground at Glastonbury, which broke into leaf and flower as the Glastonbury Thorn is a common miracle in hagiography. Such a miracle is told of the Anglo-Saxon saint Etheldreda:

Continuing her flight to Ely, Etheldreda halted for some days at Alfham, near Wintringham, where she founded a church; and near this place occurred the "miracle of her staff." Wearied with her journey, she one day slept by the wayside, having fixed her staff in the ground at her head. On waking she found the dry staff had burst into leaf; it became an ash tree, the "greatest tree in all that country;" and the place of her rest, where a church was afterwards built, became known as "Etheldredestow."
—Richard John King, Handbook of the Cathedrals of England.

Other legends claim Joseph was a relative of Jesus; specifically, Mary's uncle. Other speculation makes him a tin merchant, whose connection with Britain came by the abundant tin mines there. One version, popular during the Romantic period, even claims Joseph had taken Jesus to the island as a boy. This was the inspiration for William Blake's mystical hymn Jerusalem.

Arimathea
 
Arimathea itself is not otherwise documented, though it was "a city of Judea" according to Luke 23:51. Arimathea is usually identified with either Ramleh or Ramathaim-Zophim, where David came to Samuel (1 Samuel chapter 19).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_of_Arimathea
post edited by Sophie - 2008/03/25 02:42:55
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RE: The Women Apostles, the Women Disciples 2008/03/26 03:01:15 (permalink)
Joseph of Arimathea was, according to the Gospels, the man who donated his own prepared tomb for the burial of Jesus after Jesus was crucified. A native of Arimathea, he was apparently a man of wealth, and probably a member of the Sanhedrin (which is the way bouleutēs, literally "counsellor", is often interpreted in Matthew 27:57 and Luke 23:50).

 
As a member of the Sanhedrin, maybe Joseph of A can be a role model for men in our own hierarchy-- take a risk, go against the grain, be faithful to Christ -- don't be afraid to work side by side with women.
 
Be not afraid.  That's what Jesus said.
 
Ordain women priests!
 
 
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RE: The Women Apostles, the Women Disciples 2008/05/17 20:25:04 (permalink)
  May 17   Feast Day  for Saint Junia   Orthodox Church
 
   Woman Apostle Junia praised by Paul in Roman 16, has been a saint in the Orthodox Church for centuries.  Her day is May 17.  The book by Rena Pederson called The Lost Apostle is a real treasure and has great information about Junia, the Early Church and other woman and men saints and early Christians.
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RE: The Women Apostles, the Women Disciples 2008/05/17 22:55:13 (permalink)
Dear friend,
 
Yes! It is her feast day.  What follows is an icon of the apostles Junia, Andronicus, and Athanasius the New, Bishop of Christianoupolis.
 
with love and blessings,
 
~Sophie~
 
 


Sts. Andronicus & Junia,Apostles & Athanasius the New, Bishop of Christianoupolis

Feast Day 17th May in the Eastern Church
 
 
Sophie
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RE: The Women Apostles, the Women Disciples 2008/05/17 23:06:11 (permalink)
“Junia . . . Outstanding among the Apostles” (Romans 16:7) (1)
by Bernadette Brooten

- from Women Priests, Arlene Swidler & Leonard Swidler (eds.), Paulist Press 1977, pp. 141-144.

Republished on our website with the necessary permissions

Bernadette Brooten was at the time a Ph. D. candidate at Harvard University in the field of New Testament and was writing a dissertation on “Women in Early Church Office and Within the Organizational Structures of the Synagogue.” Ms. Brooten also studied theology for three years at the University of Tuebingen in West Germany.
 
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 


“Greet Andronicus and Junia . . . who are outstanding among the apostles” (Romans 16:7): To be an apostle is something great. But to be outstanding among the apostles—just think what a wonderful song of praise that is! They were outstanding on the basis of their works and virtuous actions. Indeed, how great the wisdom of this woman must have been that she was even deemed worthy of the title of apostle.
John Chrysostom (344/54-407)(2)
Also notable is the case of Junias or Junio, placed in the rank of the apostles (Rom. 16, 7), with regard to whom one or another [exegete] raises the question of whether it is a man.
Pontifical Biblical Commission (1976)(3)
 
 
What a striking contrast! The exegesis of Romans 16:7 has practically reversed. Whereas for John Chrysostom the apostle addressed by Paul is a woman by the name of Junia, for almost all modern scholars it is a man, Junias, whom Paul is greeting. The Biblical Commission is quite right in saying that only “one or another” exegete questions the prevailing view that the person named is a man. Most Romans commentators do not seem to be even aware of the possibility that the person could be a woman, and virtually all modern biblical translations have Junias (m.) rather than Junia (f.)
 
It was not always this way. John Chrysostom was not alone in the ancient church in taking the name to be feminine. The earliest commentator on Romans 16:7, Origen of Alexandria (e. 185-253/54), took the name to be feminine (Junta or Julia, which is a textual variant),(4) as did Jerome (340/50-419/20),(5) Hatto of Vercelli (924-961),(6) Theophylact (c.1050-c.1108),(70 and Peter Abelard (1079-1142).(8) In fact, to the best of my knowledge, no commentator on the text until Aegidius of Rome (1245-1316) took the name to be masculine. Without commenting on his departure from previous commentators, Aegidius simply referred to the two persons mentioned in Romans 16:7 as “these honorable men” (viri).(9) Aegidius noted that there were two variant readings for the second name: Juniam and Juliam (accusative in the verse). He preferred the reading Juliam and took it to be masculine. Thus we see that even Juliam, which modern scholars would take to be clearly feminine, has been considered masculine in the context of the title “apostle.”
 
If Aegidius started the ball rolling, it really picked up momentum in the Reformation period. The commentary which Martin Luther heavily relied upon, that by Father Stapulensis (Paris, 1512, p.99b), took the accusative ’IOUNIAN to be Junias (m.). Luther’s lecture on Romans (1515/1516: Weimarer Ausgabe 56, p. 150) followed Faber Stapulensis on this and other points. Through Luther the Junias interpretation was assured of a broad exposure for centuries to come. In each of the succeeding centuries the Junias hypothesis gained new adherents and the argument was expanded. To make the Junias interpretation more plausible, some commentators suggested that it was a “short form” of the Latin Junianus, Junianius, Junilius or even Junius. This “short form” hypothesis is the prevailing view in modern scholarship.
 
The proponents of the new Junias hypothesis were, however, by no means left unchallenged. In 1698, for example, Johannes Drusius (in the Critici Sacri, Amsterdam, 1698, Vol. VII, p. 930) patiently tried to remind his colleagues that Junia was the feminine counterpart of Junius, just as Prisca was of Priscus, and Julia was of Julius. Christian Wilhelm Bose, in his doctoral dissertation Andronicum et Juniam (Leipzig, 1742, p. 5), questioned that Junia/s is a short form of anything. If that be true, he pondered, then one might just as easily argue that Andronicus is a short form of Andronicianus! In our century, the most notable protester against the Junias hypothesis has been M.-J. Lagrange (Paris, 1916; sixth ed. 1950, p. 366). His reason is a conservative one: because the abbreviation Junias is unattested, it is “more prudent” to stick to the feminine Junia.
 
Unlike many of his Protestant colleagues, Lagrange was aware of the Patristic exegesis on this point. Precisely because the Church Fathers took the name to be feminine, Catholic exegetes of the past were generally slower to accept the innovation of Junias. But by now commentators of all confessions take ’IOUNIAN to be Junias.
 
What reasons have commentators given for this change? The answer is simple: a woman could not have been an apostle. Because a woman could not have been an apostle, the woman who is here called apostle could not have been a woman.
 
What can a modern philologist say about Junias? Just this: it is unattested. To date not a single Latin or Greek inscription, not a single reference in ancient literature has been cited by any of the proponents of the Junias hypothesis. My own search for an attestation has also proved fruitless. This means that we do not have a single shred of evidence that the name Junias ever existed. Nor is it plausible to argue that it is just coincidental that Junias is unattested since the “long forms” Junianus.
 
Junianius, Junilius, and Junius are common enough. It is true that Greek names could have abbreviated forms ending in -as (e.g., Artemas for Artemidoros); such names are called “hypocoristica” (terms of endearment or diminutives, e.g., Johnny for John, or Eddie for Edward). Latin hypocoristica, however, are usually formed by lengthening the name (e.g., Priscilla for Prisca) rather than by shortening it, as in Greek. The Junias hypothesis presupposes that Latin names were regularly abbreviated in the Greek fashion, which is not the case. The feminine Junia, by contrast, is a common name in both Greek and Latin inscriptions and literature. In short, literally all of the philological evidence points to the feminine Junia.
 
What does it mean that Junia and Andronicus were apostles? Was the apostolic charge not limited to the Twelve? New Testament usage varies on this point. Luke, for example, placed great emphasis on “the twelve apostles.” In fact, with one exception (Acts 14:4, 14: both Paul and Barnabas are called “apostles”), Luke does not honor Paul with the title “apostle.” Paul on the other hand, never uses the term “the twelve apostles.” He himself claimed to be an apostle, though he was not one of the Twelve, and he also called others, such as James the brother of the Lord (Galatians 1:19, cf. 1Corinthians 15:7), “apostle.” This does not mean that Paul used “apostle” in an unrestricted, loose sense. Precisely because of the seriousness with which he defends his own claim to apostleship (he says that he received his call from Christ himself: Galatians 1:1, 11f.; 1Corinthians 9:1), we must assume that he recognized others as apostles only when he was convinced that their own apostolic charge had also come from the risen Lord (cf. 1Corinthians 15, 7 the risen Lord was seen by all the apostles). For Paul the category “apostle’; was perhaps of even greater import than for other New Testament writers because it concerned authority in the church of his own day and did not refer to a closed circle of persons from the past, i.e., a restricted number which could not be repeated.
 
From this and from Paul’s description of his own apostolic work in his letters, we can assume that the apostles Junia and Andronicus were persons of great authority in the early Christian community, that they were probably missonaries and founders of churches, and that, just as with Paul, their apostleship had begun with a vision of the risen Lord and the charge to become apostles of Christ.
 
In light of Romans 16:7 then, the assertion that “Jesus did not entrust the apostolic charge to women” must be revised. The implications for women priests should be self-evident. If the first century Junia could be an apostle, it is hard to see how her twentieth century counterpart should not be allowed to become even a priest.
 
Notes
 
1. The following comments summarize briefly the results of a comprehensive study of the history of interpretation of Romans 16:7 and of the inscriptional evidence for the name IOUNIAN. The reader interested in more complete documentation is referred to that study, which will be published in the near future.
2. In Epistolam ad Romanos, Homilia 31, 2 (J.P. Migne, Patrologiae cursus completus, series Graeca [= PG] 60, 669f.).
3. “Can Women Be Priests?” (Report of the Pontifical Biblical Commission), see below, p. 344.
4. Commentaria in Epistolam ad Romanos 10, 26 (PG 14, 1281B); 10, 39 (PG 14, 1289A). Thc text printed in Migne has Junia emended to Junias, but the manuscripts have Junia or Julia.
5. Liber Interpretationis Hebraicorum Nominum 72, 15 (J.P. Migne, Patrologiae cursus completus, series Latina [=PL] 23, 895).
6. In Epistolam ad Romanos 16, 7 (PL 134, 282A).
7. Expositio In Epistolam ad Romanos 114 (PG 124, 552D).
8. Expositio in Epistolam ad Romanos 5 (PL 178, 973C).
9. Opera Exegetica. Opuscula I (Facsimile reprint of the Rome, 1554/55 edition: Frankfurt, 1968), p. 97.
 
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

http://www.womenpriests.org/classic/brooten.asp
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RE: The Women Apostles, the Women Disciples 2008/05/18 14:18:26 (permalink)
Junia  Oustanding Among The Apostles Romans 16    Woman Apostle
 
   The prevailing modern theological view and position of most modern bibles and bible commentaries is that Junia is a female apostle.
 
The book which reads like a compelling and fascinating "whodunit" detective story about Junia is by Rena Pederson and is called :
 
The Lost Apostle Searching For the Truth About Junia. 2006.
 
She quotes the leading theologians and investigates also other Early Christian women of the bible, and early Christian community like Thecla and Mary Magdalene too.
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RE: The Women Apostles, the Women Disciples 2008/05/18 14:29:25 (permalink)
Pederson also quotes a patron of womenpriests  and leading theologian Leonard Swidler about women and the Early Christian community.   She shows that the majority of modern theologians, biblical textual scholars reveal Junia was a woman and an apostle.
 
Most early Christian theologians church fathers also wrote that Junia was female.  
Thorough archival research also reveals that the male name Junias was non-existant in Greek or Roman or Jewish names and is a false construct by Giles, a cleric working for the pope Boniface VIII who as pope was suppressing the Beguine woman's movement.
 
After the crusades and plague epidemics, women and unmarried women (shortage of men) had gathered in communities to cope, to survive, and were trying to have some autonomy, some control of their property and dowries rather than handing it over to male clergy and the church.  Hildegard of Bingen herself had i n late 1100's moved her convent to do this too.  Innocent VII and Boniface VII started enforcing suppression of the women, the Inquisition began to torture and murder women and men and acquire their property and finanes and the church grew very wealthy.  Changing the gender of Junia to male, helped demean women's religous status.
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RE: The Women Apostles, the Women Disciples 2008/05/18 14:43:04 (permalink)
Female Junia, Apostle Most modern bibles favor Junia as a woman.  NAB,  NASB, NIV, NRSV, REB, KJV, ASV, NJJV, NCV.
 
Catholic Study Bible acknowledges " The Name Junia is a woman's name.  One ancient Greek manuscript and a number of versions read the name Julia".
Jerome had recorded Junia as Julia, also a woman's name.
 
Woman Junia   King James Version (1611)  Good News Bible (1966)  New King James Version (1979)  New Century Version (1987)  New Revised Standard Version (1989) HarperCollins Study Bible , NRSV, 1993.   Oxford Study Bible 1994  New Living Translation 1996  New Interpreters Study Bible 2002  Holman Christian Bible 2004   Todays New International Version 2004
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RE: The Women Apostles, the Women Disciples 2008/05/18 14:55:08 (permalink)
  What's In A Name?  Junia  and Philological Word Studies:  She's A Girl!
 
The name "Junias, male" was NOT known as a man's anme in the time of St. Paul and the early Christian community. 
 
 Daniel B. Wallace, Biblical Studies Foundation, no instances of the male name Junias have surfaced in Greek litrerature. 
 
 The name Junia female is found on ancient grave inscriptions numerous times and always in  feminine form.
 
  Hans Lietzman a superb philologian (word study) of the 1900's more than a century ago, ,  of the 1900's also came to the conclusion in investigating all surviving names in antiquity that the male name Junias did not exist. 
 
This increased the odds that the male name Junias was a fabricated name by the Middle Ages theologian Giles contrived by simply adding the letter s to transform female Junia into a man.  A man of his time and culture, Lietzman could not concede Junia was female  as it was unthinkable to him that despite the evidence that a woman could be an apostle.  
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RE: The Women Apostles, the Women Disciples 2008/05/18 15:03:01 (permalink)
                                                          Junia A Woman Church Fathers Call Her Female First 1000 Years of the Church
 
 The first 1000 years of the church, every leading church scholar or church father called Junia a female apostle. 
 
Origen of Alexandria, and Latin Vulgate Bible translater,  Saint  Jerome--who mistakenly used Julia (woman) for Junia, and  Hatto, Bishop of Vercelli,  and Theophylact, Constantinople deacon,  also the Bishop John Chrysostom, who himslef was revered as a saint, and scholar and founder of Paris University, Peter Abelard and Peter Lombard, theologian.
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RE: The Women Apostles, the Women Disciples 2008/05/18 15:20:08 (permalink)
   The  Junia Name Change : Archbishop Giles of Rome, Latin Aegidus Romanus   13th Century under pope Boniface VIII. Suppression Of Women Big Time
 
Pope Boniface VIII ruled that all nuns must be cloistered and under the control of the male clergy, not allowed to leave the convents or control their  own dowries or property. 

The Beguine women communities were ruthlessly suppressed and Inquistion tortures and murders were increased. 

The pope fought with french king Philip IV of France.  In 1298 Boniface ruled that the roles of women in the church should be more restricted and that all nuns no matter what rank (abbess)  or monastic rule , were to be perpetually cloistered and under the rule of male clergy. 

The nuns  could not leave the cloister or invite any "unauthorized persons" into the cloister. 

The days of vistors and royalty and aristocrats and people consulting and visiting and learning from illuminary nuns and women religious like Hildegard of Bingen were ended.  Women were to be shut up, both silencing and walling them up in buildings.  No access to the new universities or libraries also.  Controlled by men.
post edited by Sophie - 2008/05/22 12:32:33
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RE: The Women Apostles, the Women Disciples 2008/05/18 15:31:49 (permalink)
as done by Archbishop Giles of Rome to make her a man. 
 
As Sister Joan Chittister writes as quoted in Pederson's book about Junia and the early women disciples and community, "Men, now the professional storytellers, wrote the stories of men."  Heart Of Flesh  " Men made the rules and made the rules that benefited men.  Men explained the universe. Men wrote the plilosophy texts and enshrined the ideas of male philosophers.  Men constructed the theologies that maintained the history of women in the churches."
 
Men removed the woman Junia by trying to rename her as a man.  Recent scholarship and investigating ancient Greek texts show that Junia is a woman.
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RE: The Women Apostles, the Women Disciples 2008/05/18 15:36:32 (permalink)
In the 13th Century under Boniface VIII direction Archbishop Giles of Rome, Latin Aegidus Romanus,  changed the name Junia to male Junias.  Pederson's book The Lost Gospel about Junia and other women of the church is a wonderful description of this development and how it happended.
post edited by Sophie - 2008/05/22 12:31:07
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RE: The Women Apostles, the Women Disciples 2008/05/18 17:23:44 (permalink)
Rena Pederson's book is called The Lost Apostle, The Search For the Truth About Junia. 
 
                    She quotes Leonard Swidler who informs us how Cyril, Bishop of Alexandria (376-444) was hostile to women and to Jews.  Despite the fact Alexandria had many literate, educated  and intelligent women of note, Cyril contended women were uneducated, should not be educated, and were not able to understand difficult mattters. 
 
 The most prominent woman of his time was the most celebrated mathematician and philosopher, in Alexandria, a woman named Hypatia.  She was known for her  eloquence, modesty and beauty.  Her career and life was ended by Christian monks who dragged her from her chariot into a Christian church, stripped her naked, cut her throat and burned her part by part.  Leonard Swidler wrote that either Cyril was indirectly involved if not directly ,
 
  Leonard Swidler ,    Biblical Affirmations of Women         , Louisville, Ky, Westminister/John Knox, 1979, pp. 344-345.
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RE: The Women Apostles, the Women Disciples 2008/05/18 17:46:46 (permalink)
Hello Sophie   
 
     Can you please,  when you get a chance, edit some of the above posts   It is Boniface VIII    Eight   , not VII,  and  Innocent VII and Innocent VIII were a different century .    It is Boniface 8  or VIII who issued the papal bull in 1298 that severely restricted the Women religious so that they could not leave the cloister, control their dowry, have visitors or attend university.  Very wealthy women could have tutors.
 
It is under pope Boniface VIII that Archbishop Giles of Rome changed the name Junia to Junias and helped undermine women in the church and bible.  Universities really got started in the 1200's and  Rena Pederson lists the dates that universities opened in Europe.  The church also made it  forbidden for women to attend university too. 
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RE: The Women Apostles, the Women Disciples 2008/05/18 17:47:08 (permalink)
Dear friend,

Rena Pederson's book is an illuminating read.  For those among us not familiar with it, here following is a copy of the information Amazon.com provides about it:

The Lost Apostle: Searching for the Truth About Junia by Rena Pederson 

From Booklist

Pederson is a speechwriter and journalist, not a biblical scholar. So when she learned that there was a female apostle named Junia (whose name had been changed by church fathers to Junias), she saw it as an intriguing news story and set out to discover the truth.

The book gets off to a scattered and repetitious start, perhaps because Paul writes only a few lines about Junia in Romans, which hardly seems enough on which to base a whole book. But Pederson hits her stride when she examines the roles of women in early Christian times and speculates on how and why Junia got "lost." This is fascinating material, and the journalistic perspective turns out to be a big plus in terms of readability. Among the other topics Pederson delves into are church attitudes toward women and how they evolved, biblical inconsistencies, and the role of women in the later church. The book concludes with a list of discussion questions for each chapter. This could attract significant book-club interest. Ilene Cooper

Copyright © American Library Association. All rights reserved

Review

Thanks to Rena Pederson for digging into The Case of the Missing Apostle like a good police reporter. Junia the apostle was one of the first victims of identity theft. Restoring her name is a service to women everywhere.


  • Linda Ellerbee, award-winning television producer, journalist and best-selling author of Take Big Bites, Move On, and And So It Goes

Reading Pederson’s work is like perusing a reporter’s notebook. She invites anyone who turns these pages to help her think about which question to ask next in the search for truth. In the end, she rewards her readers for sharing this spiritual, intellectual, and journalistic pursuit by reminding us that the best human searches are satisfied with a discovery that the truth we seek is actually seeking us.
  • William B. Lawrence, dean; professor of American church history, Perkins School of Theology, Southern Methodist University

As a clergywoman I am strengthened by Rena's work. She has done what should have been done years ago. Junia is the role model we've been searching for. This should be required reading in seminaries.
  • Dr. Sheron Patterson, senior minister, Highland Hills United Methodist Church; newspaper columnist; and author of Sisters: A Mile in Her Shoes, Lessons from the Lives of Old Testament Women


I am curious to hear:  when and how did you first become acquainted with Junia and the fact that she was a woman?  How do you think her 'missing' story can be made more well known? 

with love and blessings,

~Sophie~
post edited by Sophie - 2008/05/18 17:49:29
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RE: The Women Apostles, the Women Disciples 2008/05/18 17:51:05 (permalink)


Another review about Pederson's book:


Greet Andronicus and Junia, my relatives who have been in prison with me. They are outstanding among the apostles and they were in Christ before I was. —Romans 16:7

The only woman called “apostle” in the New Testament was forgotten for ages when early church leaders decided she was a man, and changed her name. Junia, a fellow missionary praised by Paul as “outstanding among the apostles” in his letter to the Romans, became Junias—thus obscuring the role of women in the spread of Christianity. In her new book, The Lost Apostle:Searching for the Truth about Junia (Jossey-Bass, A Wiley Imprint, $21.95, September 2006), award-winning journalist Rena Pederson reclaims Junia’s rightful place in Christian history, and offers a case study of the church’s checkered history with women. Finding Junia establishes a precedent for women preaching and teaching. The issue of who is worthy to speak for Jesus was a struggle in the early church that continues over two thousand years later. As Pederson shows, Junia—and her early Christian sisters such as Prisca, Phoebe, Tabitha, Lydia, Damaris, Chloe, Claudia, Eudora, Lois, Eunice and the many Marys—proves that from the beginning, women worked alongside men to further the Jesus movement.

“Traces in scripture of these women confirm that women were part of the original DNA of the Christian church,” Pederson says.
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RE: The Women Apostles, the Women Disciples 2008/05/18 17:53:26 (permalink)
ORIGINAL: Guest

Hello Sophie   

    Can you please,  when you get a chance, edit some of the above posts   It is Boniface VIII    Eight   , not VII,  and  Innocent VII and Innocent VIII were a different century .    It is Boniface 8  or VIII who issued the papal bull in 1298 that severely restricted the Women religious so that they could not leave the cloister, control their dowry, have visitors or attend university.  Very wealthy women could have tutors.

It is under pope Boniface VIII that Archbishop Giles of Rome changed the name Junia to Junias and helped undermine women in the church and bible.  Universities really got started in the 1200's and  Rena Pederson lists the dates that universities opened in Europe.  The church also made it  forbidden for women to attend university too. 


 
Dear friend,
 
Will do!  I have been out in the garden these days and have a bit of catching up to do! 
 
Give me a day or two ~
 
with love and blessings,
 
~Sophie~
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RE: The Women Apostles, the Women Disciples 2008/05/18 17:54:55 (permalink)
PS the word is Outstanding , not oust, although the attempt was to "oust" and diminish women in society, politics and religion. 
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